debug Namespace

The debug API gives you access to several non-standard RPC methods, which will allow you to inspect, debug and set certain debugging flags during runtime.

debug_accountRange

Enumerates all accounts at a given block with paging capability. maxResults are returned in the page and the items have keys that come after the start key (hashed address).

If incompletes is false, then accounts for which the key preimage (i.e: the address) doesn’t exist in db are skipped. NB: geth by default does not store preimages.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.accountRange(blockNrOrHash, start, maxResults, nocode, nostorage, incompletes)
RPC {"method": "debug_getHeaderRlp", "params": [blockNrOrHash, start, maxResults, nocode, nostorage, incompletes]}

debug_backtraceAt

Sets the logging backtrace location. When a backtrace location is set and a log message is emitted at that location, the stack of the goroutine executing the log statement will be printed to stderr.

The location is specified as <filename>:<line>.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.backtraceAt(string)
RPC {"method": "debug_backtraceAt", "params": [string]}

Example:

> debug.backtraceAt("server.go:443")

debug_blockProfile

Turns on block profiling for the given duration and writes profile data to disk. It uses a profile rate of 1 for most accurate information. If a different rate is desired, set the rate and write the profile manually using debug_writeBlockProfile.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.blockProfile(file, seconds)
RPC {"method": "debug_blockProfile", "params": [string, number]}

debug_chaindbCompact

Flattens the entire key-value database into a single level, removing all unused slots and merging all keys.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.chaindbCompact()
RPC {"method": "debug_chaindbCompact", "params": []}

debug_chaindbProperty

Returns leveldb properties of the key-value database.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.chaindbProperty(property string)
RPC {"method": "debug_chaindbProperty", "params": [property]}

debug_cpuProfile

Turns on CPU profiling for the given duration and writes profile data to disk.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.cpuProfile(file, seconds)
RPC {"method": "debug_cpuProfile", "params": [string, number]}

debug_dbAncient

Retrieves an ancient binary blob from the freezer. The freezer is a collection of append-only immutable files. The first argument kind specifies which table to look up data from. The list of all table kinds are as follows:

  • headers: block headers
  • hashes: canonical hash table (block number -> block hash)
  • bodies: block bodies
  • receipts: block receipts
  • diffs: total difficulty table (block number -> td)
Client Method invocation
Console debug.dbAncient(kind string, number uint64)
RPC {"method": "debug_dbAncient", "params": [string, number]}

debug_dbAncients

Returns the number of ancient items in the ancient store.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.dbAncients()
RPC {"method": "debug_dbAncients"}

debug_dbGet

Returns the raw value of a key stored in the database.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.dbGet(key string)
RPC {"method": "debug_dbGet", "params": [key]}

debug_dumpBlock

Retrieves the state that corresponds to the block number and returns a list of accounts (including storage and code).

Client Method invocation
Go debug.DumpBlock(number uint64) (state.World, error)
Console debug.traceBlockByHash(number, [options])
RPC {"method": "debug_dumpBlock", "params": [number]}

Example

> debug.dumpBlock(10)
{
    fff7ac99c8e4feb60c9750054bdc14ce1857f181: {
      balance: "49358640978154672",
      code: "",
      codeHash: "c5d2460186f7233c927e7db2dcc703c0e500b653ca82273b7bfad8045d85a470",
      nonce: 2,
      root: "56e81f171bcc55a6ff8345e692c0f86e5b48e01b996cadc001622fb5e363b421",
      storage: {}
    },
    fffbca3a38c3c5fcb3adbb8e63c04c3e629aafce: {
      balance: "3460945928",
      code: "",
      codeHash: "c5d2460186f7233c927e7db2dcc703c0e500b653ca82273b7bfad8045d85a470",
      nonce: 657,
      root: "56e81f171bcc55a6ff8345e692c0f86e5b48e01b996cadc001622fb5e363b421",
      storage: {}
    }
  },
  root: "19f4ed94e188dd9c7eb04226bd240fa6b449401a6c656d6d2816a87ccaf206f1"
}

debug_freeOSMemory

Forces garbage collection

Client Method invocation
Go debug.FreeOSMemory()
Console debug.freeOSMemory()
RPC {"method": "debug_freeOSMemory", "params": []}

debug_freezeClient

Forces a temporary client freeze, normally when the server is overloaded. Available as part of LES light server.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.freezeClient(node string)
RPC {"method": "debug_freezeClient", "params": [node]}

debug_gcStats

Returns garbage collection statistics.

See https://golang.org/pkg/runtime/debug/#GCStats for information about the fields of the returned object.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.gcStats()
RPC {"method": "debug_gcStats", "params": []}

debug_getAccessibleState

Returns the first number where the node has accessible state on disk. This is the post-state of that block and the pre-state of the next block. The (from, to) parameters are the sequence of blocks to search, which can go either forwards or backwards.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.getAccessibleState(from, to rpc.BlockNumber)
RPC {"method": "debug_getAccessibleState", "params": [from, to]}

debug_getBadBlocks

Returns a list of the last ‘bad blocks’ that the client has seen on the network and returns them as a JSON list of block-hashes.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.getBadBlocks()
RPC {"method": "debug_getBadBlocks", "params": []}

debug_getBlockRlp

Retrieves and returns the RLP encoded block by number.

Client Method invocation
Go debug.GetBlockRlp(number uint64) (string, error)
Console debug.getBlockRlp(number, [options])
RPC {"method": "debug_getBlockRlp", "params": [number]}

References: RLP

debug_getHeaderRlp

Returns an RLP-encoded header.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.getHeaderRlp(blockNum)
RPC {"method": "debug_getHeaderRlp", "params": [num]}

debug_getModifiedAccountsByHash

Returns all accounts that have changed between the two blocks specified. A change is defined as a difference in nonce, balance, code hash, or storage hash. With one parameter, returns the list of accounts modified in the specified block.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.getModifiedAccountsByHash(startHash, endHash)
RPC {"method": "debug_getModifiedAccountsByHash", "params": [startHash, endHash]}

debug_getModifiedAccountsByNumber

Returns all accounts that have changed between the two blocks specified. A change is defined as a difference in nonce, balance, code hash or storage hash.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.getModifiedAccountsByNumber(startNum uint64, endNum uint64)
RPC {"method": "debug_getModifiedAccountsByNumber", "params": [startNum, endNum]}

debug_getRawReceipts

Returns the consensus-encoding of all receipts in a single block.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.getRawReceipts(blockNrOrHash)
RPC {"method": "debug_getRawReceipts", "params": [blockNrOrHash]}

debug_goTrace

Turns on Go runtime tracing for the given duration and writes trace data to disk.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.goTrace(file, seconds)
RPC {"method": "debug_goTrace", "params": [string, number]}

debug_intermediateRoots

Executes a block (bad- or canon- or side-), and returns a list of intermediate roots: the stateroot after each transaction.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.intermediateRoots(blockHash, [options])
RPC {"method": "debug_intermediateRoots", "params": [blockHash, {}]}

debug_memStats

Returns detailed runtime memory statistics.

See https://golang.org/pkg/runtime/#MemStats for information about the fields of the returned object.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.memStats()
RPC {"method": "debug_memStats", "params": []}

debug_mutexProfile

Turns on mutex profiling for nsec seconds and writes profile data to file. It uses a profile rate of 1 for most accurate information. If a different rate is desired, set the rate and write the profile manually.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.mutexProfile(file, nsec)
RPC {"method": "debug_mutexProfile", "params": [file, nsec]}

debug_preimage

Returns the preimage for a sha3 hash, if known.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.preimage(hash)
RPC {"method": "debug_preimage", "params": [hash]}

debug_printBlock

Retrieves a block and returns its pretty printed form.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.printBlock(number uint64)
RPC {"method": "debug_printBlock", "params": [number]}

debug_seedHash

Fetches and retrieves the seed hash of the block by number

Client Method invocation
Go debug.SeedHash(number uint64) (string, error)
Console debug.seedHash(number, [options])
RPC {"method": "debug_seedHash", "params": [number]}

debug_setBlockProfileRate

Sets the rate (in samples/sec) of goroutine block profile data collection. A non-zero rate enables block profiling, setting it to zero stops the profile. Collected profile data can be written using debug_writeBlockProfile.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.setBlockProfileRate(rate)
RPC {"method": "debug_setBlockProfileRate", "params": [number]}

debug_setGCPercent

Sets the garbage collection target percentage. A negative value disables garbage collection.

Client Method invocation
Go debug.SetGCPercent(v int)
Console debug.setGCPercent(v)
RPC {"method": "debug_setGCPercent", "params": [v]}

debug_setHead

Sets the current head of the local chain by block number. Note, this is a destructive action and may severely damage your chain. Use with extreme caution.

Client Method invocation
Go debug.SetHead(number uint64)
Console debug.setHead(number)
RPC {"method": "debug_setHead", "params": [number]}

References: Ethash

debug_setMutexProfileFraction

Sets the rate of mutex profiling.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.setMutexProfileFraction(rate int)
RPC {"method": "debug_setMutexProfileFraction", "params": [rate]}

debug_stacks

Returns a printed representation of the stacks of all goroutines. Note that the web3 wrapper for this method takes care of the printing and does not return the string.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.stacks()
RPC {"method": "debug_stacks", "params": []}

debug_standardTraceBlockToFile

When JS-based tracing (see below) was first implemented, the intended usecase was to enable long-running tracers that could stream results back via a subscription channel. This method works a bit differently. (For full details, see PR)

  • It streams output to disk during the execution, to not blow up the memory usage on the node
  • It uses jsonl as output format (to allow streaming)
  • Uses a cross-client standardized output, so called ‘standard json’
    • Uses op for string-representation of opcode, instead of op/opName for numeric/string, and other simlar small differences.
    • has refund
    • Represents memory as a contiguous chunk of data, as opposed to a list of 32-byte segments like debug_traceTransaction

This means that this method is only ‘useful’ for callers who control the node – at least sufficiently to be able to read the artefacts from the filesystem after the fact.

The method can be used to dump a certain transaction out of a given block:

> debug.standardTraceBlockToFile("0x0bbe9f1484668a2bf159c63f0cf556ed8c8282f99e3ffdb03ad2175a863bca63", {txHash:"0x4049f61ffbb0747bb88dc1c85dd6686ebf225a3c10c282c45a8e0c644739f7e9", disableMemory:true})
["/tmp/block_0x0bbe9f14-14-0x4049f61f-099048234"]

Or all txs from a block:

> debug.standardTraceBlockToFile("0x0bbe9f1484668a2bf159c63f0cf556ed8c8282f99e3ffdb03ad2175a863bca63", {disableMemory:true})
["/tmp/block_0x0bbe9f14-0-0xb4502ea7-409046657", "/tmp/block_0x0bbe9f14-1-0xe839be8f-954614764", "/tmp/block_0x0bbe9f14-2-0xc6e2052f-542255195", "/tmp/block_0x0bbe9f14-3-0x01b7f3fe-209673214", "/tmp/block_0x0bbe9f14-4-0x0f290422-320999749", "/tmp/block_0x0bbe9f14-5-0x2dc0fb80-844117472", "/tmp/block_0x0bbe9f14-6-0x35542da1-256306111", "/tmp/block_0x0bbe9f14-7-0x3e199a08-086370834", "/tmp/block_0x0bbe9f14-8-0x87778b88-194603593", "/tmp/block_0x0bbe9f14-9-0xbcb081ba-629580052", "/tmp/block_0x0bbe9f14-10-0xc254381a-578605923", "/tmp/block_0x0bbe9f14-11-0xcc434d58-405931366", "/tmp/block_0x0bbe9f14-12-0xce61967d-874423181", "/tmp/block_0x0bbe9f14-13-0x05a20b35-267153288", "/tmp/block_0x0bbe9f14-14-0x4049f61f-606653767", "/tmp/block_0x0bbe9f14-15-0x46d473d2-614457338", "/tmp/block_0x0bbe9f14-16-0x35cf5500-411906321", "/tmp/block_0x0bbe9f14-17-0x79222961-278569788", "/tmp/block_0x0bbe9f14-18-0xad84e7b1-095032683", "/tmp/block_0x0bbe9f14-19-0x4bd48260-019097038", "/tmp/block_0x0bbe9f14-20-0x1517411d-292624085", "/tmp/block_0x0bbe9f14-21-0x6857e350-971385904", "/tmp/block_0x0bbe9f14-22-0xbe3ae2ca-236639695"]

Files are created in a temp-location, with the naming standard block_<blockhash:4>-<txindex>-<txhash:4>-<random suffix>. Each opcode immediately streams to file, with no in-geth buffering aside from whatever buffering the os normally does.

On the server side, it also adds some more info when regenerating historical state, namely, the reexec-number if required historical state is not avaiable is encountered, so a user can experiment with increasing that setting. It also prints out the remaining block until it reaches target:

INFO [10-15|13:48:25.263] Regenerating historical state            block=2385959 target=2386012 remaining=53   elapsed=3m30.990537767s
INFO [10-15|13:48:33.342] Regenerating historical state            block=2386012 target=2386012 remaining=0    elapsed=3m39.070073163s
INFO [10-15|13:48:33.343] Historical state regenerated             block=2386012 elapsed=3m39.070454362s nodes=10.03mB preimages=652.08kB
INFO [10-15|13:48:33.352] Wrote trace                              file=/tmp/block_0x14490c57-0-0xfbbd6d91-715824834
INFO [10-15|13:48:33.352] Wrote trace                              file=/tmp/block_0x14490c57-1-0x71076194-187462969
INFO [10-15|13:48:34.421] Wrote trace file=/tmp/block_0x14490c57-2-0x3f4263fe-056924484

The options is as follows:

type StdTraceConfig struct {
  *vm.LogConfig
  Reexec *uint64
  TxHash *common.Hash
}

debug_standardTraceBadBlockToFile

This method is similar to debug_standardTraceBlockToFile, but can be used to obtain info about a block which has been rejected as invalid (for some reason).

debug_startCPUProfile

Turns on CPU profiling indefinitely, writing to the given file.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.startCPUProfile(file)
RPC {"method": "debug_startCPUProfile", "params": [string]}

debug_startGoTrace

Starts writing a Go runtime trace to the given file.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.startGoTrace(file)
RPC {"method": "debug_startGoTrace", "params": [string]}

debug_stopCPUProfile

Stops an ongoing CPU profile.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.stopCPUProfile()
RPC {"method": "debug_stopCPUProfile", "params": []}

debug_stopGoTrace

Stops writing the Go runtime trace.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.startGoTrace(file)
RPC {"method": "debug_stopGoTrace", "params": []}

debug_storageRangeAt

Returns the storage at the given block height and transaction index. The result can be paged by providing a maxResult to cap the number of storage slots returned as well as specifying the offset via keyStart (hash of storage key).

Client Method invocation
Console debug.storageRangeAt(blockHash, txIdx, contractAddress, keyStart, maxResult)
RPC {"method": "debug_storageRangeAt", "params": [blockHash, txIdx, contractAddress, keyStart, maxResult]}

debug_traceBadBlock

Returns the structured logs created during the execution of EVM against a block pulled from the pool of bad ones and returns them as a JSON object.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.traceBadBlock(blockHash, [options])
RPC {"method": "debug_traceBadBlock", "params": [blockHash, {}]}

debug_traceBlock

The traceBlock method will return a full stack trace of all invoked opcodes of all transaction that were included in this block. Note, the parent of this block must be present or it will fail.

Client Method invocation
Go debug.TraceBlock(blockRlp []byte, config. *vm.Config) BlockTraceResult
Console debug.traceBlock(tblockRlp, [options])
RPC {"method": "debug_traceBlock", "params": [blockRlp, {}]}

References: RLP

Example

> debug.traceBlock("0xblock_rlp")
{
  gas: 85301,
  returnValue: "",
  structLogs: [{
      depth: 1,
      error: "",
      gas: 162106,
      gasCost: 3,
      memory: null,
      op: "PUSH1",
      pc: 0,
      stack: [],
      storage: {}
  },
    /* snip */
  {
      depth: 1,
      error: "",
      gas: 100000,
      gasCost: 0,
      memory: ["0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000006", "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000", "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000060"],
      op: "STOP",
      pc: 120,
      stack: ["00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000d67cbec9"],
      storage: {
        0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000004: "8241fa522772837f0d05511f20caa6da1d5a3209000000000000000400000001",
        0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000006: "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001",
        f652222313e28459528d920b65115c16c04f3efc82aaedc97be59f3f377c0d3f: "00000000000000000000000002e816afc1b5c0f39852131959d946eb3b07b5ad"
      }
  }]

debug_traceBlockByNumber

Similar to debug_traceBlock, traceBlockByNumber accepts a block number and will replay the block that is already present in the database.

Client Method invocation
Go debug.TraceBlockByNumber(number uint64, config. *vm.Config) BlockTraceResult
Console debug.traceBlockByNumber(number, [options])
RPC {"method": "debug_traceBlockByNumber", "params": [number, {}]}

References: RLP

debug_traceBlockByHash

Similar to debug_traceBlock, traceBlockByHash accepts a block hash and will replay the block that is already present in the database.

Client Method invocation
Go debug.TraceBlockByHash(hash common.Hash, config. *vm.Config) BlockTraceResult
Console debug.traceBlockByHash(hash, [options])
RPC {"method": "debug_traceBlockByHash", "params": [hash {}]}

References: RLP

debug_traceBlockFromFile

Similar to debug_traceBlock, traceBlockFromFile accepts a file containing the RLP of the block.

Client Method invocation
Go debug.TraceBlockFromFile(fileName string, config. *vm.Config) BlockTraceResult
Console debug.traceBlockFromFile(fileName, [options])
RPC {"method": "debug_traceBlockFromFile", "params": [fileName, {}]}

References: RLP

debug_traceCall

The debug_traceCall method lets you run an eth_call within the context of the given block execution using the final state of parent block as the base. The first argument (just as in eth_call) is a transaction object. The block can be specified either by hash or by number as the second argument. A tracer can be specified as a third argument, similar to debug_traceTransaction. It returns the same output as debug_traceTransaction.

Client Method invocation
Go debug.TraceCall(args ethapi.CallArgs, blockNrOrHash rpc.BlockNumberOrHash, config *TraceConfig) (*ExecutionResult, error)
Console debug.traceCall(object, blockNrOrHash, [options])
RPC {"method": "debug_traceCall", "params": [object, blockNrOrHash, {}]}

Example

No specific call options:

> debug.traceCall(null, "0x0")
{
  failed: false,
  gas: 53000,
  returnValue: "",
  structLogs: []
}

Tracing a call with a destination and specific sender, disabling the storage and memory output (less data returned over RPC)

debug.traceCall({
	"from": "0xdeadbeef29292929192939494959594933929292",
	"to": "0xde929f939d939d393f939393f93939f393929023",
	"gas": "0x7a120",
	"data": "0xf00d4b5d00000000000000000000000001291230982139282304923482304912923823920000000000000000000000001293123098123928310239129839291010293810"
	},
	"latest", {"disableStorage": true, "disableMemory": true})

It is possible to supply ‘overrides’ for both state-data (accounts/storage) and block data (number, timestamp etc). In the example below, a call which executes NUMBER is performed, and the overridden number is placed on the stack:

> debug.traceCall({
	from: eth.accounts[0], 
	value:"0x1",
	gasPrice: "0xffffffff", 
	gas: "0xffff", 
	input: "0x43"},
	"latest", 
	{"blockoverrides":
		{"number": "0x50"}
	})
{
  failed: false,
  gas: 53018,
  returnValue: "",
  structLogs: [{
      depth: 1,
      gas: 12519,
      gasCost: 2,
      op: "NUMBER",
      pc: 0,
      stack: []
  }, {
      depth: 1,
      gas: 12517,
      gasCost: 0,
      op: "STOP",
      pc: 1,
      stack: ["0x50"]
  }]
}

Curl example:

> curl -H "Content-Type: application/json" -X POST  localhost:8545 --data '{"jsonrpc":"2.0","method":"debug_traceCall","params":[null, "pending"],"id":1}'
{"jsonrpc":"2.0","id":1,"result":{"gas":53000,"failed":false,"returnValue":"","structLogs":[]}}

debug_traceChain

Returns the structured logs created during the execution of EVM between two blocks (excluding start) as a JSON object. This endpoint must be invoked via debug_subscribe as follows:

const res = provider.send('debug_subscribe', ['traceChain', '0x3f3a2a', '0x3f3a2b'])

please refer to the subscription page for more details.

debug_traceTransaction

OBS In most scenarios, debug.standardTraceBlockToFile is better suited for tracing!

The traceTransaction debugging method will attempt to run the transaction in the exact same manner as it was executed on the network. It will replay any transaction that may have been executed prior to this one before it will finally attempt to execute the transaction that corresponds to the given hash.

In addition to the hash of the transaction you may give it a secondary optional argument, which specifies the options for this specific call. The possible options are:

  • disableStorage: BOOL. Setting this to true will disable storage capture (default = false).
  • disableStack: BOOL. Setting this to true will disable stack capture (default = false).
  • enableMemory: BOOL. Setting this to true will enable memory capture (default = false).
  • enableReturnData: BOOL. Setting this to true will enable return data capture (default = false).
  • tracer: STRING. Setting this will enable JavaScript-based transaction tracing, described below. If set, the previous four arguments will be ignored.
  • timeout: STRING. Overrides the default timeout of 5 seconds for JavaScript-based tracing calls. Valid values are described here.
Client Method invocation
Go debug.TraceTransaction(txHash common.Hash, logger *vm.LogConfig) (*ExecutionResult, error)
Console debug.traceTransaction(txHash, [options])
RPC {"method": "debug_traceTransaction", "params": [txHash, {}]}

Example

> debug.traceTransaction("0x2059dd53ecac9827faad14d364f9e04b1d5fe5b506e3acc886eff7a6f88a696a")
{
  gas: 85301,
  returnValue: "",
  structLogs: [{
      depth: 1,
      error: "",
      gas: 162106,
      gasCost: 3,
      memory: null,
      op: "PUSH1",
      pc: 0,
      stack: [],
      storage: {}
  },
    /* snip */
  {
      depth: 1,
      error: "",
      gas: 100000,
      gasCost: 0,
      memory: ["0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000006", "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000", "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000060"],
      op: "STOP",
      pc: 120,
      stack: ["00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000d67cbec9"],
      storage: {
        0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000004: "8241fa522772837f0d05511f20caa6da1d5a3209000000000000000400000001",
        0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000006: "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001",
        f652222313e28459528d920b65115c16c04f3efc82aaedc97be59f3f377c0d3f: "00000000000000000000000002e816afc1b5c0f39852131959d946eb3b07b5ad"
      }
  }]

JavaScript-based tracing

Specifying the tracer option in the second argument enables JavaScript-based tracing. In this mode, tracer is interpreted as a JavaScript expression that is expected to evaluate to an object which must expose the result and fault methods. There exist 4 additional methods, namely: setup, step, enter, and exit. enter and exit must be present or omitted together.

Setup

setup is invoked once, in the beginning when the tracer is being constructed by Geth for a given transaction. It takes in one argument config. config allows users to pass in options to the tracer. config is to be JSON-decoded for usage and its default value is "{}".

Step

step is a function that takes two arguments, log and db, and is called for each step of the EVM, or when an error occurs, as the specified transaction is traced.

log has the following fields:

  • op: Object, an OpCode object representing the current opcode
  • stack: Object, a structure representing the EVM execution stack
  • memory: Object, a structure representing the contract’s memory space
  • contract: Object, an object representing the account executing the current operation

and the following methods:

  • getPC() - returns a Number with the current program counter
  • getGas() - returns a Number with the amount of gas remaining
  • getCost() - returns the cost of the opcode as a Number
  • getDepth() - returns the execution depth as a Number
  • getRefund() - returns the amount to be refunded as a Number
  • getError() - returns information about the error if one occured, otherwise returns undefined

If error is non-empty, all other fields should be ignored.

For efficiency, the same log object is reused on each execution step, updated with current values; make sure to copy values you want to preserve beyond the current call. For instance, this step function will not work:

function(log) {
  this.logs.append(log);
}

But this step function will:

function(log) {
  this.logs.append({gas: log.getGas(), pc: log.getPC(), ...});
}

log.op has the following methods:

  • isPush() - returns true if the opcode is a PUSHn
  • toString() - returns the string representation of the opcode
  • toNumber() - returns the opcode’s number

log.memory has the following methods:

  • slice(start, stop) - returns the specified segment of memory as a byte slice
  • getUint(offset) - returns the 32 bytes at the given offset
  • length() - returns the memory size

log.stack has the following methods:

  • peek(idx) - returns the idx-th element from the top of the stack (0 is the topmost element) as a big.Int
  • length() - returns the number of elements in the stack

log.contract has the following methods:

  • getCaller() - returns the address of the caller
  • getAddress() - returns the address of the current contract
  • getValue() - returns the amount of value sent from caller to contract as a big.Int
  • getInput() - returns the input data passed to the contract

db has the following methods:

  • getBalance(address) - returns a big.Int with the specified account’s balance
  • getNonce(address) - returns a Number with the specified account’s nonce
  • getCode(address) - returns a byte slice with the code for the specified account
  • getState(address, hash) - returns the state value for the specified account and the specified hash
  • exists(address) - returns true if the specified address exists

If the step function throws an exception or executes an illegal operation at any point, it will not be called on any further VM steps, and the error will be returned to the caller.

Result

result is a function that takes two arguments ctx and db, and is expected to return a JSON-serializable value to return to the RPC caller.

ctx is the context in which the transaction is executing and has the following fields:

  • type - String, one of the two values CALL and CREATE
  • from - Address, sender of the transaction
  • to - Address, target of the transaction
  • input - Buffer, input transaction data
  • gas - Number, gas budget of the transaction
  • gasUsed - Number, amount of gas used in executing the transaction (excludes txdata costs)
  • gasPrice - Number, gas price configured in the transaction being executed
  • intrinsicGas - Number, intrinsic gas for the transaction being executed
  • value - big.Int, amount to be transferred in wei
  • block - Number, block number
  • output - Buffer, value returned from EVM
  • time - String, execution runtime

And these fields are only available for tracing mined transactions (i.e. not available when doing debug_traceCall):

  • blockHash - Buffer, hash of the block that holds the transaction being executed
  • txIndex - Number, index of the transaction being executed in the block
  • txHash - Buffer, hash of the transaction being executed
Fault

fault is a function that takes two arguments, log and db, just like step and is invoked when an error happens during the execution of an opcode which wasn’t reported in step. The method log.getError() has information about the error.

Enter & Exit

enter and exit are respectively invoked on stepping in and out of an internal call. More specifically they are invoked on the CALL variants, CREATE variants and also for the transfer implied by a SELFDESTRUCT.

enter takes a callFrame object as argument which has the following methods:

  • getType() - returns a string which has the type of the call frame
  • getFrom() - returns the address of the call frame sender
  • getTo() - returns the address of the call frame target
  • getInput() - returns the input as a buffer
  • getGas() - returns a Number which has the amount of gas provided for the frame
  • getValue() - returns a big.Int with the amount to be transferred only if available, otherwise undefined

exit takes in a frameResult object which has the following methods:

  • getGasUsed() - returns amount of gas used throughout the frame as a Number
  • getOutput() - returns the output as a buffer ` -getError() - returns an error if one occured during execution and undefined` otherwise
Usage

Note that several values are Golang big.Int objects, not JavaScript numbers or JS bigints. As such, they have the same interface as described in the godocs. Their default serialization to JSON is as a Javascript number; to serialize large numbers accurately call .String() on them. For convenience, big.NewInt(x) is provided, and will convert a uint to a Go BigInt.

Usage example, returns the top element of the stack at each CALL opcode only:

debug.traceTransaction(txhash, {tracer: '{data: [], fault: function(log) {}, step: function(log) { if(log.op.toString() == "CALL") this.data.push(log.stack.peek(0)); }, result: function() { return this.data; }}'});

debug_verbosity

Sets the logging verbosity ceiling. Log messages with level up to and including the given level will be printed.

The verbosity of individual packages and source files can be raised using debug_vmodule.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.verbosity(level)
RPC {"method": "debug_vmodule", "params": [number]}

debug_vmodule

Sets the logging verbosity pattern.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.vmodule(string)
RPC {"method": "debug_vmodule", "params": [string]}

Examples

If you want to see messages from a particular Go package (directory) and all subdirectories, use:

> debug.vmodule("eth/*=6")

If you want to restrict messages to a particular package (e.g. p2p) but exclude subdirectories, use:

> debug.vmodule("p2p=6")

If you want to see log messages from a particular source file, use

> debug.vmodule("server.go=6")

You can compose these basic patterns. If you want to see all output from peer.go in a package below eth (eth/peer.go, eth/downloader/peer.go) as well as output from package p2p at level <= 5, use:

debug.vmodule("eth/*/peer.go=6,p2p=5")

debug_writeBlockProfile

Writes a goroutine blocking profile to the given file.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.writeBlockProfile(file)
RPC {"method": "debug_writeBlockProfile", "params": [string]}

debug_writeMemProfile

Writes an allocation profile to the given file. Note that the profiling rate cannot be set through the API, it must be set on the command line using the --pprof.memprofilerate flag.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.writeMemProfile(file string)
RPC {"method": "debug_writeBlockProfile", "params": [string]}

debug_writeMutexProfile

Writes a goroutine blocking profile to the given file.

Client Method invocation
Console debug.writeMutexProfile(file)
RPC {"method": "debug_writeMutexProfile", "params": [file]}